Planning function: Planning is the process of setting objectives and goals and determining the action that should be taken to accomplish them.

Steps of planning:

Defining the objectives of the organization.

Evaluating its current accomplishments relative to the desired goals.

Developing actions regarding future conditions.

Analyzing possible actions alternatives and choosing the best one.

Implementing the alternative and evaluating the results.

Types of plans:

Short range plan: covers one year or less and set by low-level managers.

Intermediate plan: covers from one to two years.

Long range plan: covers three years or more and set be top-level managers.

Organizing function: Organizing is the process of assigning tasks, jobs, allocation resources and arranging the activities of the employees to implement the plans.

Organization structure: the system of tasks and communication channels that link together the work of employees.

Formal organizational structure: the official structure of the organization written and documented. It consists of the job title and lines of authorities.

Informal organizational structure: the set of unofficial relationships among an organization’s employees. It shows who talks to whom regardless of their formal titles.

Leading function: Leading is the process of making employees interested and enthusiastic to work hard and direct their efforts to fill full the organizational plans and accomplish the objectives.

Controlling function: Controlling is the process of measuring work performance, comparing results to desired objectives and taking corrective actions.

Steps of control process:

Establish objectives and standards.

Measure actual performance.

Compare results with objectives and standards.

Take corrective actions.