Planning function: Planning is the process of setting objectives and goals and determining the action that should be taken to accomplish them.
Steps of planning:
– Defining the objectives of the organization.
– Evaluating its current accomplishments relative to the desired goals.
– Developing actions regarding future conditions.
– Analyzing possible actions alternatives and choosing the best one.
– Implementing the alternative and evaluating the results.
Types of plans:
– Short range plan: covers one year or less and set by low-level managers.
– Intermediate plan: covers from one to two years.
– Long range plan: covers three years or more and set be top-level managers.
Organizing function: Organizing is the process of assigning tasks, jobs, allocation resources and arranging the activities of the employees to implement the plans.
Organization structure: the system of tasks and communication channels that link together the work of employees.
– Formal organizational structure: the official structure of the organization written and documented. It consists of the job title and lines of authorities.
– Informal organizational structure: the set of unofficial relationships among an organization’s employees. It shows who talks to whom regardless of their formal titles.
Leading function: Leading is the process of making employees interested and enthusiastic to work hard and direct their efforts to fill full the organizational plans and accomplish the objectives.
Controlling function: Controlling is the process of measuring work performance, comparing results to desired objectives and taking corrective actions.
Steps of control process:
– Establish objectives and standards.
– Measure actual performance.
– Compare results with objectives and standards.
– Take corrective actions.